Chronology of Astrological and Historical Developments
Chronology of Astrological and Historical Developments
The following partial chronology juxtaposes the major political and societal developments in the areas of the world, with records of concurrent astrological and astronomical developments for the same time periods. The importance of these developments (in the European) is the degree with which the psychological control factors of both government and religious hierarchies begin to usurp individual rights and freedoms of the individual to empower themselves through the knowledge of astrology, and/or to seek an understanding philosophically of their own place within the universe. In the pre-hispanic periods of the Americas identified, most of the native cultures were for the most part balanced between the feminine and masculine, and Teotihuacan (where the gods have a road) in Mexico was a society that worshipped a Goddess. The Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacan was built to allow the entrance of the cave underneath it to align with the setting of the Pleiades. Mesoamerica will be defined as the area from Mexico to Honduras.
In Europe, the feminine aspect of support through trust begins to wane by the first half of the first millennium B.C.E.. This reflects the gradual development of the indoctrination of philosophic notion of the individual as "inherently negative" belief system. This negative belief system lead to the Christian cult and the concept of being born already at disadvantage (sinner). This indoctrinating system of denigration is meant to keep the individual in a state of perpetual guilt and "amends making" schemata of personal perspective of never-ending self justification, and empty self-efficacy orientation that requires "guidance" from those in "authority." Hence, the competition and alignment of the church and Rome over the centuries. Power is the issue in this area of the world. This is created by the collective because of their unwillingness to take responsibility for their own reality. Hence, the "science of following" (religions) and its development are essentially what is indicated as the societal structures move from trusting the environs to needing to control them.
Introspection and concepts of abundance remained high in the pre-hispanic Americas, and sacrifice being noble death was accepted as positive, which all but eradicated societal structures based on fear of scarcity. As self-introspection and beliefs in resourcefulness wanes, so does the belief in the ability to decide one's own fate. As self-efficacy wanes (because of the cutting off of the belief in the ability to self-empower), an increase in fatalistic philosophies and despair also increases (leading eventually to the despair of the dark ages in Europe). The increased discounting of the environment as being instructive and instead being evil (Christian philosophic perspectives and the increase in the masculine dominance perspectives) reflects this downward spiral of dis-empowering tactics designed by those in power to control increasing populations and prevent the egalitarian natural state understood instinctively by early cultures, and those in the Americas prior to the Spanish "holocaust." The Mesoamerican cultures, therefore, never really ceased using astrology and the archetype of the Cardinal points. It was alive and well and most of its documentation destroyed by the Spanish Christian Monks justifying it as "evil." Only a few historical documents remain from the Maya, which is why it has been so tedious to decode them. The evidence is, that Mesoamerican cultures (the Olmec being the formative culture) were not unlike Babylonian cultures in their reverence for the cycles of Venus, worship of the goddess, nature and the heavens in general.
Political/Societal/Area of World Astronomical/Astrological Development
1) Ancient Period--30,000 - 5,000 B.C.E.
i. Upper Paleolithic
Perspectives revolve around hearth, and the immediate group. The development of systematic agriculture and the domestication of animals (10,000-6000), affects trade and division of labor. Trust in the environs as indicators of states of consciousness.
Mesoamerican Paleo-Indian up to 8000 BCE, Archaic period from 8000 to 1800 BCE. Feminine worship, Venus Figures, lunar bone markings of Moon phases and feminine cycles, reflecting astronomical observations. Evidence for the recognition of 3 constellations; The Bear (Europe and Native America), The Pleiades (Lascaux) and Orion (Australian aborigines). (23,000) Woman holding Bison horn (or crescent) with 13 marks (lunations) on relief found in France.
Olmec heartland in LaVenta.
2) Early Period--4000 - 400 B.C.E.
Described in each period listed. Sun, Venus and Moon worship. The development of megalithic sites for astronomical purposes. This period will overlap with the development of astrology in the Mesopotamian and Middle eastern, Greek, and Hellenistic cultures and periods.
A. 4000 - 3000 B.C.E.
Development of city-states. The origination of astral religion would develop more rapidly as the Sumerians integrated with Babylonians (currently accepted as the originators of astrology), by intermarrying with, and replacing the language of, the Ubaidians. Megaliths at Malta. (3500) Female head sculpture thought to be Inanna (Goddess associated with the planet Venus) from Uruk. Egyptian 1st Dynasty.
B. 3000 - 2500 B.C.E.
Egyptian Old Kingdom establishes Pharaoh with complete authority. King as "living God". Classes include family, nobles, middle class and peasants.
Sumerian city-states. The Sumerians developed cuneiform by impressing wedge-shapes into soft clay. Astrological information would be then impressed into tablets. Stonehenge and other megalithic sites oriented and designed to reflect celestial orientation. Egyptian first dynasty alludes to Sirius as "opener of the year" calandric reference. Stars and constellations mentioned in the old kingdom pyramid texts in Egypt. Pyramids. Beginning of Indus Valley culture.
C. 2500 - 1900 B. C. E.
v. 2122--2102 Gudea of Lagash
Gudea rules Lagash as king. Gudea of Lagash records a dream in which he sees a goddess (Nisaba) who studies a clay tablet with the constellations on it, to build a temple in accordance with the stars. Stele of Narim Sin depicting sun and planets. The decans first appear as drawings on the inner side of coffin lids in Egypt.
D. 1800 - B.C.E.
vi. Prayer to the Gods of the Night
vii. 1800 Height of the Babylonian civilization.
viii. Early Pre-classic Olmec sculpture and cave monuments in Veracruz Mexico. List of star names in the "Prayer to The Gods of The Night".
Mesoamerica: Evidence of Cardinal points depicting Olmec supernaturals (Gods of the directions form the basis for divisions of time) underworld, avian, storm-gods as precursor to calendric significance. X complex. "House of the north" (star) axis mundi. Importance of Pleiades.
E. 1780 B.C.E.
Hammurabi, ruler of Babylonia reigns. A diviner reports the eclipse of the moon suspecting it a bad omen. Stele of Hammurabi.
F. 1646 B.C.E. Venus Tablet of Ammissaduqa. The Venus Tables of Ammissaduqa are the oldest surviving tables of systematic observations of planetary and astronomical movements. They contain astronomical data and omen lore concerning the phases of Venus.
G. 1600 B.C.E. Height of Minoan civilization and bull worship.
H. 1570 - 1070 B.C.E.
Egyptian monotheism during reign of Amenhotep. New Kingdom in Egypt. The rise of the Assyrian Empire. Astrology in eastern Turkey. Prominent stars recorded, Shang dynasty, China (1400). Constellations represented in the royal tombs of new kingdom Egypt (1570), and in the ceiling of Seti 1 (1291-1278). Constellations occurs in Vedas in India (1500). (1500-1250) Text from Cassite period measures distance between 8 constellations.
I. 1000 B.C.E.
Zoroastrianism and the dualism perspective.
Saul, first king of Israel. The Mul.Apin (The Plough-star) lists the constellations in three broad bands running roughly to the equator, Seventeen constellations listed along ecliptic.
J. 1000 - 700 B.C.E.
Expansion of Assyrian Empire.
Rome is founded 753.
Era of Nabonassar (747).
Homer (800). Hesiod in Greece (750). The Enuma Anu Enlil, (when the gods Anu (Heaven), Enlil (Earth) and Ea (Water) established in council the plans of the sky and earth)- 7,000 omens and predictions from Nineveh inscribed in the 7th century incorporating material from about 1646 B.C.E.
Eclipses observed and dated in Babylon (747).
K. 700 - 500 B.C.E.
Assyrian empire destroyed by Babylon.
Birth of Thales (624).
Birth of Pythagoras (586).
Xenophanes, teacher of Parmenides (580).
(730-650) Assyrian Empire controls all of
Mesopotamia, parts of Persia, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. This is also notable as the first time that Egypt and Babylon were under the same regime.
(612) The fall of Assyria and the rise of the Second Babylonian Empire. The Babylonian people that brought this about were also known as Chaldeans, hence the term Chaldean
(539) The conquest of Babylonia by Persia. For a second time Egypt and Babylon came under one regime. Mesopotamian planetary astronomy and astrology could have begun coming into Egypt at this time. This is only supposition as evidence is lacking. Earliest surviving astrological diary, (652). Eclipse prediction by Thales (585). Anaximenes- macrocosm and microcosm (550). Babylon conquered by the Persians (539). Pythagoras in Babylon (530). Heracleitus- Worlds of Being and Becoming, Parmenides - founder of Eleatic School: spherical Earth?, Philolaus - movement of the Earth, Anaxagoras - studied surface of the Moon (500). (650-450) The development of a twelve-fold zodiac with equal 30 degree signs.
L. 500 - 400 B.C.E.
460 Hippocrates at Kos, Utilized the four humors in diet; surgery; prognostics
490 Empedocles Developed theory of the four immutable "substances" (495) Empedocles - the four elements. (460) Hippocrates - origin of medical astrology. (432) First known use of Zodiacal signs. (428-348) Plato The Timaeus, and Epinomis, the stars are living beings, and the heavens teach us number--discusses elements and the stars as living gods . (410) First known individual birth chart and nativity omens (409). (400) Eudoxus - planetary spheres, description of the constellations. (470-399) Socrates (?) (432) Meton expounded on the Metonic eclipse cycle.
M. 400 - 300 B.C.E.
ix. Hellenistic Period
(356-323) Alexander the Great conquers Mesopotamia. Seleucid dynasty.
(300) Zeno of Citium founded Stoicism.
(384) Aristotle- Macedonian Methods for converting one element to another; pneuma
Theophrastus -372-289, Considered father of botany
Herophilus -330-250, Chalcedon (Alexandria) Anatomical advances (especially brain and nervous system) based on vivisection
Erasistratus -330-250, Ceos (Antioch) Anatomical advances based on vivisection; attempted synthesis which was meant to be a perfection of Aristotle 384-323 Aristotle. 350 Herakleides- the Earth spins on its axis. 331 Alexander conquers Babylon: Hellenistic era. 315-c.250, Aratus - Phaenomena, earliest surviving description of constellations. 311 Zeno- Stoicism. 310 Birth of Aristarcus - discoverer of Heliocentric system. 308 First known Ephemeris.
Beginning with the conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great, astrology begins to take the form as we know it. Most in Greek, but most authors were not Greeks but Egyptians and Semites. Astrology came into Egypt and developed in a manner characteristic to the Egyptians. It is this astrology which forms the basis of the Greek language astrological writings that came in later centuries.
N. 300 - 200 B.C.E.
xiii. First Mayan Stela at Tik'al
(227) The Sassanids from the area of Persia, overthrew the Parthians and established the Second Persian Empire, or Sassanid Empire. Under this empire astrology flourished and Zoroastrianism was restored.
(Late 3rd century) Mithraism, a mystery-cult mostly of petty bureaucrats, slaves and ex-slaves worshipping the God Mithra from the Iranian god, but became so popular in the Roman empire that it transformed its eastern roots.
Teotihuacan; Temple of the feathered serpent (200). Goddess worship. (290) Berossus of Cos, Chaldean (Babylonian) priest who settled on the island of Cos and is said to have first introduced natal astrology into Greece. (263) The first cuneiform chart with degrees given. (200) Nechepso & Petosiris, Egyptian pharaoh and his priest, said to have invented astrology. An extensive astrological textbook bearing their names was written or translated into Greek around 200. (200) Hermetic writings. Roughly contemporary with the Nechepso and Petosiris writings, a diverse group of writings most attributed to Hermes, some to other Egyptian sages such as Anubis and Agathodaimon. (221) First known Egyptian Zodiac.
(200 - 200 C.E.) The introduction of horoscopic astrology into India and Rome.
(284-195) Erastothenes who was summoned by Ptolemy to become head librarian at the Library of Alexandria, compiled the Catasterismi a major description of the constellations after Aratus.
Teotihuacan aligns city with Pleiades, constructs pyramid of the sun (225)
O. 200 - 0 B.C.E.
xv. Classical Period in the Middle East
xvi. Patlachique phase of Teotihuacan (100 BCE)
(27) Augustus becomes first Roman Emperor. (7-4) Probable birth of Christ.
(126) The Parthians, an Iranian people, conquered Mesopotamia, ending the Greek domination of this area.
Dioscorides, 20 De materia medica: the major source on drugs
Galen, 130 -Pergamum. Compiled eastern system of medicine. Thoroughly integrated astrology into medicine. Used pulse diagnosis as a primary diagnostic system. (190-120) Hipparchus- figures out the precession of the Equinoxes. Hipparchus also composed a star catalog listing some 1000 stars. (150) Mystical writings of Nechepso in Egypt. (135) Birth of Posidonius - teacher of astrology to the Romans. (68) Last cuneiform horoscope. (61) First 'Greek' Horoscope. (30) Zodiacs of Denderah in Egypt. (4) First known astrological chart to use a 'horoscope' e.g. Ascendant.
P. 0 C.E - 200 C.E.
xvii. Teotihuacan Pyramids laid out in 50 and completed by 125.
xviii. Tzacualli phase of Teotihuacan. Most of Teotihuacan built by 1-150. 150-200 thousand person population.
xix. 150-250 Miccaotli phase of Teotihuacan. Temple of The Feathered Serpent at Teotihuacan.
xx. Copan Maya begins 400 year bak'tun with ruler from Teotihuacan Yak K'uk Mo'.
(193) Septimius Severus Emperor - Sun worship.
(200) Clement of Alexandria, one of the first major Christian Platonists.
(36) Death of Thrasyllus astrological advisor to Tiberius.
(76-138) Hadrian reigned. (14) Astronomica of Manilius. (120) Birth of Galen, physician and author writing considerably on astrology. (144) Birth of Vettius Valens, compiled the Anthology, a long writing dealing with most facets of Greek astrology. Dorotheus of Sidon, wrote the Pentateuch, a long and important astrological poem in 5 books. (100) Dorotheus is the oldest source for the three triplicity rulership system. (100) Teucer of Babylon, was the first to delineate the decans astrologically (may be an incorrect tradition). Late First Century, Balbillus. Son or nephew of Thrasyllus and almost as eminent. (76-138) Hadrian reigned (117-138) and was a patron of astrology, his birth data have apparently survived. (120) Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos. Claudius Ptolemy, an Egyptian by birth although possibly descended from ethnic Greeks, was also probably a Roman citizen although he wrote in Greek.
Pyramid of Moon and Sun in Teotihuacan. Pyramids aligned with setting of Pleiades seen from entrance (Sun). Calendar with century equalling 52 years. Venus seen as God of war by Maya. Venus Temple at Copan. Astronomical Codex. Sun and Venus alignments part of Maya astrology.
Q. 200 - 300
xxi. Tlamimilopa phase of Teotihuacan. Figurines mass produced by molds. Acceleration of city life. Classic Teotihuacan Mesoamerican period (250-900 AD). Early lowland Maya villages. Calendar writing. (203) Plotinus - founder of Neo-Platonism argues against the flaws of "fated" astrological philosophies. (232) Porphyry; disciple of the Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus, and commentator on Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos is attributed to him. (222 - 235) Pseudo-Manetho, responsible for a didactic poem in 6 books. (250-330) Iamblichus; Neoplatonist of Syrian birth attempted to create a Neoplatonic religion combined with magical practices of a tantric nature. In De Mysteriis, Iamblichus deals directly with the problem of "malefic" planetary energies and how their quality is derived from shortcomings within the soul rather than from the intrinsic nature of the planet. (218) Sol Invictus Elagabal, cult of the sun, became the state religion of Rome.
Teotihuacan: Abstracted disks and stars in artwork. Worship of Pleiades/Sun/Moon.
R. 300 - 400
xxii. Tzakol-Early Classic Maya (300-600)
(306-337) Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, (313) sanctioned Christianity as the state religion.
(325) The Council of Nicaea.
(331-363) Julian the Emperor called the Apostate, reigned from 361-363. In reign he attempted to disestablish Christianity and institute a new state religion based on the teachings of Iamblichus. (347-395) Theodosius the Great, reigned 379-395. In his reign Christianity was declared to be the only tolerated religion although Paganism survived for a long time afterward. (350) Julius Firmicus Maternus, the only other author who wrote in Latin aside from Manilius. His text Mathesis was known through the Middle Ages and is a good source of late Hellenistic techniques. (354-430) St. Augustine, one of the more articulate opponents of astrology in ancient times, did not dismiss the influence of the planets upon historical and natural events, only upon individual human beings. (378) Paulus Alexandrinus, wrote the Introductory Matters, an introduction and overview to mainstream Greek astrology. (379) Anonymous of 379. Wrote a work on the natal delineation of 30 bright fixed stars, the same stars Ptolemy used in his Phases.
The Council of Laodicea (365) forbids clergy to be astrologers.
(370) Pricillian Spanish Gnostic astrological heresy.
S. 400 - 500
xxiii. The Early Byzantine Period
xxiv. Xolalpan phase of Teotihuacan.
(410) St Augustine: City of God.
(476) Abdication of Romulus Augustulus: symbolic end of western Roman empire.
496 Clovis adopts Roman Christianity (476) Birth of Aryabadha - Indian astronomer. (480) Boethius 'Consolation of Philosophy'. (410-485) Proclus was the last of the great Neoplatonic philosophers of the Classical Era who attempted to systematize the philosophy of the ancients into a coherent and axiomatic system, and attempted to straighten out some of philosophical shortcomings of the astronomical theories of Ptolemy and his successors. (415) Hephaistio of Thebes wrote an organized Apotelesmatics to reconcile the traditions of Ptolemy and Dorotheus. His text is the largest source of actual fragments of Dorotheus, useful because he is one of the earliest interpreters of Ptolemy that still exists.
T. 500 - 600 The Middle Ages (to 1400)
(529) Justinian the Great, Byzantine emperor who reigned from 527-565. Justinian, eastern emperor, closes Platonic and Aristotelian schools in Athens.
590-604. Pope Gregory the Great establishes the Papacy as major political power.
Germanic kingdoms established on former Roman lands (5th and 6th cent.)
Boethius, The Consolation of Philosophy (523).
Saint Benedict founds monastery at Monte Cassino (529)
Law Code of Justinian (529)
Byzantine church Hagia Sophia (532-537)
Pope Gregory I sends missionaries to convert the Anglo-Saxons (596)
Cassiodorus establishes a monastic library at Vivarium (540) (564) Olympiodorus. Wrote commentary on lectures.
Latin Period - Medieval. This covers the astrology of the Latin West which was almost entirely derived from the astrology of the Arab era. The critical point 622 when Mohammed fled from Mecca to Medina.
560-636. Isidore of Seville. Only fragments of astrology survive in his work.
U. 600 - 700
xxvi. Tepeu - Late Classic Maya (600-900)
(634-642) The Arabs under Islam conquered the Semitic areas of the Mediterranean coast and Egypt reuniting these areas with the Mesopotamian and Persian heartland of astrology for the first time since the Parthian invasions.
7th - 8th C. Golden age of Irish Monasticism.
622. The Hijirah - flight of Mohammed from Mecca marks official beginning of Islam.
635-642. Muslim invasion of Egypt and Syria - defeat of Byzantine empire.
635-42. Muslim invasion of Mesopotamia and Persia to Indan borders.
Spread of Islam (622-732)
The Koran (600) Early 7 Century, Rhetorius of Egypt, makes a large collection of excerpts from early astrological writings.
672-735. The Venerable Bede's writings show some survival of astrological ideas in the Dark Ages.
Nawbakht the Persian (629-79) court astrologer to the caliph al-Mansur, selected to head up a group of astrologers to make election charts for the founding of Baghdad. One of his students was Masha allah.
V. 700 - 800
xxvii. The Arabic Era
Charles Martel defeats the Muslims at Tours (732)
Bede, Ecclesiastical History of the English People (c. 700)
711. Muslim invasion of Spain - furthest penetration into France 732.
8th-l0th C. Golden age of Islam
Muslim Golden Age (700s and 800s)
800. Coronation of Charlemagne as Roman Emperor - foundation of 'Holy Roman Empire'.
Carolingian Renaissance (768-814)
Alfred the Great promotes learning in England (871-899)
Muslim, Magyar, and Viking invasions of Latin Christendom (9th and early l0th cent.)
Growth of feudalism (800-1100) The Arabic Era - In this time astrology flourished on a grand scale under the influence of the Syrians, remaining Greeks, Egyptians and Persians, as well as a number of Jewish writers.
Abu Musa Jabir - Alchemist Aristotelian elements.
Late 8th" Century C.E. Theophilus of Edessa. Became court astrologer to the caliph al-Mahdi.Respected for skills in astrology.
An important bridge between Greek and Arabic astrology was in 770 C.E. Astronomical works from India were brought to Baghdad. Although Arabic astrology appears to have been largely Persian in method and style, it did derive its early astronomy from India which had in turn gotten it from the Middle East in an earlier time.
Zaradusht (750) Zoroaster's Book of Nativities.
Masa'allah (740-785) 770-c815 C.E. Masha' allah, Messahalla in Latin (what God has done). He flourished under the Caliphs al-Mansur and al-Mamun. Author of many works. A Jew from Basra, and leading astrologer.
al-Khwarizmi (fl. 770)- astronomer
Abu Ali al-Khayyat (770-835) Pupil of Mash-allah, influenced by Dorotheus Pentateuch.
Kankah (754-775) Indian astrologer at Baghdad, book on calculations for the nativity.
A1 Kindi (795-865) Philosopher of the Arabs. Worked to establish a pharmacological scale equivalent to the four degrees for compounds.
Abu Ma'Shar (787-886) known in the West as Albumasar. Began his career as a student of the Hadith or traditions of the Prophet Muhammad, but in his 30's or 40's he gave that up and turned his attention to astrology. After this, he became famous not only as the leading authority on astrology but also as a court astrologer and a professional astrologer. His knowledge of the subject was vast.
I. 800 - 900
xxix. Chichen Itza Toltec Maya
German king Otto I becomes first Holy Roman Emperor (962)
840s Height of Viking attacks, Norse invasions.
Abu Ja'far Ahmed (c900)
Al Farabi (878-950)
Thabit ibn Kurrah (836)
815 C.E. Omar of Tiberias Also flourished under al-Mamun. Probably translated Dorotheus from Middle Persian to Arabic. Had a very Hellenistic style of astrology.
Early 9th Century C.E. Abu Bakr, in Latin Albubather.
822 - 850. C.E. Zahel. Zahel was one of the more Hellenistic of the Arabic Era astrologers.
854 C.E. Abu Ali al-Khayyat. Student of Masha'allah and author of The Judgments of Nativities a work strongly influenced by the work of Dorotheus.
863. Al-Farghani, Alfraganus in Latin.
870 Al-Kindi. Major philosophical figure in the Arabic world. Author of On the Stellar Rays among other works. This work was more influential in the history of Magick and metaphysical Neoplatonism than in astrology. Its influence appears in Robert Grosseteste and Roger Bacon, as well as John Dee. This tradition is known as the Light Metaphysics because it is a metaphysical system that regards light as the means for the transmission of forms.
886 C.E. Abu Ma'shar, Albumasar in Latin. With this author we have the full-blown Persian astrological tradition. Earliest known use of Solar Returns. He was one of the most important and prolific of the Arabic era authors. A Persian himself, he wrote in both Arabic and Persian. His works include "The Great Conjunctions," "The Greater Introduction to Astrology," "The Abbreviation of the Introduction to Astrology" and a work known in Latin as de Revolutionibus.
834- 901 C.E. Thabit ibn Qurra. Notable as an author who came out of Harranian tradition of Magick, Neoplatonism and late Hermeticism. Translated many medical and scientific books from Greek into Arabic.
820-912 C.E. Qusja ben Luqa, in Latin Costa ben Luca or Quosti filius Luce.
Ar-Razi (Rhazes) 866-925 - Ar-Razi, in Latin Rhazes. Medical encyclopedist of the Hippocratic tradition; identified smallpox. Also extended classification of the earth. Had six categories of that kind of earth, alchemical earth. The metals except for mercury (quicksilver) were grouped as one of the six primary categories of minerals. Next were stones, like pyrite, quartz, glass, etc. Then the salts, table salt, lime, etc. Next group were boruses -borax the most obvious materials. The purer the metal, the less likely it would be to have these other things mixed in with them.
II. 900 - 1000
950-1010. Gerbert of Auvergne - Pope Sylvester II.
962 Otto I crowned emperor of the Romans, beginning the Holy Roman Empire
987 Hugh Capet becomes king of France
980-1037 Avicenna Bokhara, The Canon of Medicine, an attempted reconciliation between Galen and Aristotle, but favoring Aristotle. 967 C.E. A1-Qabisi, in Latin Alchabitius. He is the promoter of the house system, although he did not actually invent it. The system dates from the late Classical Era. A1-Qabisi's Introduction to astrology was one of the most popular works in Latin translation.
1040 C.E. Ali ibn abi r-Rijal, in Latin Haly Abenragel. One of the most influential of the Arabic era astrologers in later Latin Astrology. Wrote an extensive treatise on astrology.
973-1049 C.E. AI-biruni. Largely unknown to Latin astrology, A1-Baruni was one of the most literate and skilled Arabic Era astronomers and was also extremely knowledgeable on astrology. His Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of astrology is available in English.
III. 1000 - 1100
Split between the Byzantine and Roman churches (1054)
Romanesque style in architecture (1000s and 1100s)
Norman conquest of England (1066)
Start of the Investiture Controversy (1075)
Start of First Crusade (1096)
llth-l2th C. European scholars rediscover classical learning in Arab texts. The 'twelfth century Renaissance' featured the adoption of Aristotelianism philosophy and the development of the first universities (e.g. at Cambridge, 1209, Oxford) under the 'schoolmen'.
1058-1l11 Al-Gazzali- Remedies are threefold: obvious (as food for hunger); of a contrary nature to the disease; or magical 1092-1167 C.E. Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (the son of Meir, the son of Ezra) Ibn Ezra was a Jewish scholar of great importance in addition to his astrology. Author of The Beginning of Wisdom and The Book of Reasons among many others. An extremely influential author in the Latin West.
Haly Abenragel (1140c)
IV. 1100 - 1200
xxxi. Mayapan (Maya)
c.1100 Revival of the study of Roman law at Bologna
1163 Start of the construction of the Cathedral of Notre Dame
1198-1216. Innocent II - zenith of papacy.
Philip Augustus expands central authority in France (1180-1223)
Flowering of medieval culture ( l2th and l3th cent.): universities, Gothic architecture, scholastic philosophy, revival of Roman law
Development of common law and jury system in England (1100s)
Pontificate of Innocent III: height of papal power (1198-1216)
1153. St Bernard of Clairvaux - Opposed use of physical medicine or physicians by monks. Herbs were maybe OK.
1119-1151. Translations by Hugo of Santilla from Arabic. The most notable is the Book of Aristotle Containing the Totality of All Questions, both Genethliacal and Revolutionary, from the Two Hundred and Fifty-Five Volumes of the Indians.
1118-1180 Manuel Komnenos Emperor crowned in 1143 had astrologers in his court.
1125. Adelard of Bath An Englishman who went into the Islamic world and learned much about its culture. He was one of the first to translate Arabic astrological texts into Latin, most notably Abu Ma'shar's The Abbreviation of the Introduction to Astrology.
1138. Plato of Tivoli's translation of the Tetrabiblos from Arabic into Latin. The first in the Middle ages.
1150. John of Seville. Early and prolific translator from Arabic. He also wrote a treatise on astrology himself making him one of the earlier writers of original works on Astrology in Latin in the Middle Ages.
1175-1253. Robert Grosseteste. An English Bishop who worked in Optics and discussed theories of light. He was part of the A1-Kindi to John Dee lineage of the Light Metaphysics.
1193-1280. Albertus Magnus. Teacher of Thomas Aquinas and one of those who was most responsible for bringing Aristotelianism in its Arabic form into Western thought. Also widely regarded as being involved in Alchemy and Astrology.
The latter at least is quite certain as he is generally regarded as the author of the Speculum Astronomae, a book which amounts to a critical bibliography of the then available astrological works and an examination of which doctrines in them were and were not in harmony with Christianity.
Astrologer and geomancer, Bernard of Tours (Bishop of Quimper 1159-1167)
V. 1200 - 1300
1210/1223. Guido Bonatti.
1214/1220-1292. Roger Bacon
1227-1274. Thomas Aquinas.
Magna Carta (1215)
Aquinas, Summa Theologica (1267-1273)
Destruction of Baghdad by Mongols (1258)
1266-1308. John Duns Scotus. Major scholastic philosopher.
School of Salerno- 1lth -12th Centuries, Translated Greek and Arabic sources; commentaries on earlier works; anatomical treatises. Ursus of Salerno subdivided the elements into three species (superior, middle and inferior) corresponding to the degrees of intensity.
The call for astrological research: Englishman Roger Bacon (1214-1294)
German Albertus Magnus (c.1200-1280), teacher of Aquinas
English herbalist and physician Gilbertus Anglicus (active circa 1219)
Scottish theologian and alchemist Michael Scot (1175? -1235)
Florentine Guido Bonatti ( 1223 - ?)
Johannes (?) Campanus of Novara ( 1232? -1296) Astrology powerful--1210, 1215, 1231, 1245, 1270, 1277 astrology condemned by the church SIX times!
c1210-1290. Guido Bonatti. Author of one the most extensive Latin treatises, the Liber Astronomae. This work is a grand and an encyclopedia of the Arabic tradition composed in Latin. One of its major virtues of the work is that Bonatti subjected the material that he had learned to a critical analysis based on his own experience.
1210-1296. Campanus of Novara. He is the one to whom that Campanus house system is often attributed. It is known, however, that these houses were used in the Arabic Era.
1214-1294. Roger Bacon. An English Franciscan who also wrote extensively on Optics and the Light Metaphysics. Closely associated with Robert Grosseteste.
1225-1274. Thomas Aquinas. The most important scholastic philosopher of the Middle Ages who codified the Aristotelian-Christian synthesis that is still the basis of Catholic doctrine.
1226-1284. Alfonso X. King of Leon and Castile who sponsored the creation of the Alfonsine Tables, planetary tables on which the Middle Ages relied for astrology and astronomy.
1236. Michael Scot. Astrologer and Natural
philosopher at the court of the Emperor Frederick II. Regarded in the Middle Ages as a major magician.
Physician, alchemist and astrologer Arnaud de Villeneuve (1235-1312), Rector of the University of Montpelier Italian Doctor and Astrologer Pierre d'Abano (1250-?), translator of ibn Ezra
VI. 1300 - 1400 - Renaissance
Hundred Years' War (1337-1453) Dante, Divine Comedy (c.1307-1321)
Black Death (1347-1351)
1304-1374 Patriarch, "father of humanism"
Chaucer, Canterbury Tales (c.1388-1400)
Great Schism of papacy (1378-1417)
1309-1377 Babylonian Captivity; the popes, all French, reside at Avignon and are influenced by the French monarchy
1300 Hundreds Years' War (1337-1453) Italian Renaissance begins (c.1350) Late 13'", early 14th Centuries. Peter of Abano. Involved in magic and astrology and wrote much on astrological images. His longest work, the Conciliator, contains many scholastic questions which discuss astrology and astrological medicine. He also corrected and translated the Old French translations of Ibn Ezra from Old French into Latin.
14th Century. Andalo di Negro. An aristocrat and astrologer.
1320 - The Precious Pearl, an Aristotelian synthesis of Alchemy.
1379. John of Ashenden One of the first English astrologers of note. He only worked in political and mundane astrology. Strongly influenced by Abu Ma'shar.
1400. Antonio de Montulmo. Wrote On the Judgment of Nativities and on astrological magic.
John of Eschenden (writing circa 1345)
Partial critic Nicole Oresme (1320? -1382)
Pierre d'Ailly (I350-1420)
Astrologers to French Charles V (1364-1380): Pierre de Valois, Gervais Chrestien, Andre de Sully, Pelerin de Prusse, Domenico de Chirvasso, Yves de Saint-Branchier and Thomas de Pisan
Antonius de Montulmo (active circa 1396)
Astrologer to English Henry IV (1399-1413): Geoffroi de Lestainx Astrologer to Holy Roman Emperor Sigismond (1368-1437): Gratien
VII. 1400 - 1500
xxxii. Tenochtitlan, Tlaxcala Aztecs
xxxiii. Tayasal (Itza) Maya
1418. Beginning of systematic Spanish exploration of Africa begins the 'European voyages of discovery'.
c.1445 Johann Gutenberg invents movable metal type
1452. The Turks occupy Constantinople - end of Byzantine empire - Greek learning now concentrated in Italy.
1454. Traditional date of the invention of printing by moveable type by Johann Gutenberg.
1459. Marsilio Ficino installed as head of Cosimo de Medici's Platonic Academy
at Florence - begins translation of Plato and Hermes - the foundation of Renaissance humanism.
1469. First printed almanac.
1492. Columbus' first voyage.
1415 The battle of Agincourt: Henry V of England defeats the French; Jan Hus, a Bohemian religious reformer, is burned at
1453 The English are driven from France, except Calais; the end of the Hundred Years' War
1460 Pope Pius II condemns the Conciliar Movement as heretical
1473-1543. Copernicus, the first to create a coherent system of mathematical heliocentric astronomy. Author of de Revolutionibus.
1483-1546. Martin Luther.
1410-1502. Laurentius Bonincontrius. Author of the Treatise on Elections.
1459 Cosimo de Medici installs Marsilio Ficino in New Academy.
1433-1499. Marsilio Ficino. Translator of the Corpus Hermeticum, Plato and Plotinus into Latin. He was patronized by Cosimo di Medici and others and participated in the establishment of a Platonic style Academy. He was interested more in natural Magic and astrology applied to such than to horoscopic astrology. Author of the Three Books on Life among other works.
1436-1475. Johannes Regiomontanus. Did an epitome of the Almagest and was partly responsible for the rebirth of German astronomy in the late Middle Ages. The house system named after him was not his creation but was an Arabic Era system.
1455-1522. Johann Reuchlin. One of the first serious scholars of Hebrew and the Kaballah. He was also a defender of the rights of Jews in Europe.
1463-1494. Pico della Mirandola. Originally a student of Marsilio Ficino he became a follower of the zealot Savonarola and to have changed his views. He wrote the Disputations Against Divinatory Astrology which became the bible of later astrology debunkers even though his reasons were largely religious and not scientific. The Astrologers correctly predicted his early death. This has been disputed by some scholars.
1475-1558. Lucas Gauricus. Very involved with church hierarchy, and he predicted that a friend would be elected Pope.
The friend was, and Gauricus became a bishop. Author of several astrological works.
1477-1547. Johannes Schoener. The main astrologer responsible for propagating the writings of Regiomontanus. Compiled an annual ephemeris and wrote the Opusculum Astrologicum and Three Books on the Judgment of Nativities.
1486-1535. Cornelius Agrippa, the author of de Occulta Philosophia.
Conrad Heingarter (died 1487)
Ephemeris maker Johann Stoeffler (1452-1531 )
Cornelius Agrippa (1486-1535)
Paul of Middleburg (active circa 1486)
Johannes Lichtenberger (active circa 1488)
Simon de Phares (active 1490's)
Philip Melancthon (1496-1565)
VIII. 1500 - 1600
xxxiv. 1502. Columbus runs into Maya on Yucatan.
1517. Formal beginning of Reformation
Europe split between Catholic and Protestant.
xxxv. Cortez lands at Veracruz Mexico (1519)
1546 Copernicus - heliocentric theory.
1572 Tycho Brahe: the 'New Star'
1513 Machiavelli writes The Prince
1517 Martin Luther writes his Ninety-five Theses and the Reformation begins
1520 Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther
1524-1526 German peasants revolt
1529 English Parliament accepts Henry VIII's Reformation
1534 Henry VIII is declared head of the Church of England; King Francis I of France declares Protestants to be heretics; Ignatius
Loyola founds the Society of Jesus; Anabaptists, radical reformers, capture Munster in Westphalia
1535 Sir Thomas More, English humanist and author of Utopia, is executed for treason
1536-1564 Calvin leads the Reformation in Geneva
1545-1563 Council of Trent
1555 Peace of Augsburg
1546-1601. Tycho Brahe. Compiled the most accurate star catalog to date and made extensive and highly accurate planetary observations which became the basis of the calculations by Kepler that led to Kepler's laws and the first reasonably accurate planetary tables.
1571-1630. Kepler. The great astronomer and reformer of astrology.
1572. The "New Star" observed by Tycho Brahe and others. 1497-1560. Philip Melanchthon, A great patron of astrology and rendered the first Latin translation of the Tetrabiblos from the original Greek of Ptolemy (as opposed to the Proclus Paraphrase). He was also close to Schoener.
1501-1576. Jerome Cardan. Mathematician, magician and astrologer.
1524-1574. Cyprianus Leovitius. Frequently cited astrologer of this period.
1527-1608. John Dee. Astrologer and alchemist. Influenced by Metaphysics of Al-Kindi, Grosseteste, and Roger Bacon.
1530-1575. Johannes Garcaeus. Author of a comprehensive collection of nativities.
1530-1594. Claude Dariot. One of the major influences on Lilly and English astrology in general, a French writer.
Late 16th Century. Heinrich Ranzovius. Compiled a reference work of delineations which consisted of quotations from the major sources of his time.
1550-1617. John Napier. The inventor of logarithms which appear to have been invented in part to make astronomical and astrological calculations simpler.
1558-1628. David Origanus. A compiler of ephemerides and almanacs.
1570-1657. Andreas Argolus. Wrote on medical and basic astrology.
1583-1656. Morinus. A French astrologer of the court of Louis XIV. Attempted to reform astrology.
Schoener, student of Stoeffer (active circa 1517-1539)
Jerome Cardan (1501-1576) and the emergence of collections of nativities
Ruy Faleiro and Magellan (circa 1519)
Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)
Scottish Robert Fludd (1574-1637)
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
IX. 1600 - 1700
1609. Kepler's New Astronomy.
1697 Last independent Mesoamerican city surrenders to King of Spain.
1605 Publication of Bacon's Advancement o f Learning
1610 Publication of Galileo's The Starry Messenger, asserting the uniformity of nature
1632 Galileo's teachings are condemned by the church, and he is placed under house arrest
1687 Publication of Newton's Principia Mathematica
1690 Publication of Locke's Two Treatises of Government
1643-1727. Isaac Newton.
1642-1660. The English Civil War, and the Commonwealth, later dominated by Oliver Cromwell. The English Period and the Decline of Astrology
1640's -1660s Golden Age of English astrology - Lilly, Gadbury, Wharton.
1617. Ioaunes Antonius Maginus. One of the first advocates of the house system later known as Placidian.
1629. Valentine Naibod. Predicted his own death, correctly as it turned out. He is the source of the Naibod rate in directing.
1602-1681. William Lilly. An astrologer in the medieval tradition and a great horary practitioner. The greatest of the English school and the leader of the modern revival of traditional astrology.
1603-1668. Placidus. Took up the system of Maginus and Arabs before him now known as the Placidian system. Also attempted to create a scientific astrology based on Ptolemy and Aristotle.
1617-1692. Elias Ashmole. Patron of several English astrologers including Lilly, and whose legacy led to the founding of the Ashmolean Library at Oxford.
1616-1654. Nicholas Culpeper. Wrote the herbal and numerous works on astrology.
1617-1681. George Wharton. Royalist opponent of Lilly in the pamphlet wars of the English Civil War period.
1628-1704. John Gadbury. Royalist and Catholic astrologer. Originally a student and later enemy of Lilly.
1633-1707. Henry Coley. Lilly's student and successor.
1644-1715. John Partridge. Attempted to purge astrology of "medievalisms" and was perhaps the single greatest cause of the loss of medieval teachings in practice, and was also the one most responsible for introducing the Placidus system into English astrology.
1653-1724. John Whalley. Did first translation of Ptolemy into English.
1660. The Restoration of the Monarchy in England under Charles II. This is when astrology really began to decline in England. This was to a great extent because the astrologers were preponderantly on the Puritan side during the Commonwealth and Astrology became associated with "revolution" in this increasingly conservative period.
X. 1700 - 1800
War of Spanish Succession (1702-1714)
Enlightenment thinkers: Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Diderot, Hume, Adam Smith, Thomas Jefferson, Kant
War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
Frederick the Great of Prussia (1740-1786)
Maria Theresa of Austria (1740-1780)
Seven Years' War (1756-1763)
American Declaration of Independence (1776)
American Revolution ( 1776-1783 )
Beginning of French Revolution (1789)
1733 Publication of Voltaire's Letters Concerning the English Nation
1751-1765 Publication of the Encyclopedia edited by Diderot 1751-1799. Ebenezer Sibley. Wrote the 18th Century's most influential text.
1766-1828. John Worsdale. Wrote about the Placidian method of directing.
1770. The last academic course in astrology ended at the University of Salamanca.
XI. 1800 - 1900 Revival of astrology in the 19th and 20th Centuries.
(2000) Kepler University - First Astrological University in the Modern era.