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SIRIUS - THE DOGSTAR

SIRIUS - THE DOGSTAR


The brightest star in the sky, Sirius, has a white dwarf companion which is identified each of the following designations: Sirius B, Alpha Canis Majoris B, or e.g. HD 48915 B.

The starting point of creation is the star which revolves around Sirius and is actually named the “Digitaria star”; it is regarded by the Dogon as the smallest and heaviest of all the stars; it contains the germs of all things. Its movement on its own axis and around Sirius upholds all creation in space.

MORE INFORMATION ON DIGITARIA

Digitaria

Sirius appears red to the eye, Digitaria white, the latter lying at the origin of all things. It is the "Egg of the World", aduno tal, the infinitely tiny, as it developed, it gave birth to everything that exists, both visible and invisible. To start with, it was just a seed of Digitaria Exilis = Po(Grain) Tolo(Star) - consisting of a central nucleus which ejected ever larger seeds of shoots in a conical spiral motion.

Sirius and Sirius "B" were once where our sun is now is. Sirius A being 10,000 times brighter then Sirius "B" (Digitaria). The Dogon consider Sirius "B" as the most important star in the sky although it is invisible. In 1862 the American Alvan Clark looked through the largest telescope then existing and saw a faint point of light where Sirius B should be, thus confirming its existence. In 1915 Dr. W. S. Adams of Mt. Wilson Observatory made the necessary observations to learn the temperature of Sirius B , which is 8,000 degrees - half as much again as our sun. it began to be realized that Sirius B was an intensely hot star which radiated three to four times more light and heat per square foot than our sun. It then became possible to calculate the size of Sirius B, which is only three time the radius of earth, yet its mass was just a little less than our sun. A theory of white dwarfs then developed to account for Sirius B, and other white dwarfs were later discovered. This star according to Dogon mythology is composed of sagala, a form of metal unknown on Earth (the root of Sagala meaning both "Strong" and "Heat"). Sagala could be an equivalent to the degenerate and superdense matter of white dwarf stars.

According to Dogon legend the "Nommo" (Amphibian extraterrestrial beings) descended to the Earth to implant knowledge to Gogo (the Fox), Ogo also means impure and is symbolized by mankind. The fox rebelled at its inception, impatient to couple with its double and broke away from Amma, who is the Dogon head of the universe (God, etc.) and thus Ogo remained unfinished.

For the Dogon an infinite number of stars and spiraling worlds exist. The satellites are called "Tolo Gonoze" - "Stars that make the circle". The heavenly motions are likened to the circulation of the blood. The planets, satellites and companions are "Circulating blood". This brings us to the extraordinary point that the Dogon know about the circulation of the blood in the body derived from their own traditions. In our own culture, the Englishman William Harvey (1578-1657) discovered the circulation of the blood, here follows the Dogon theory on its circulations; "The movement of the blood in the body which circulates inside the organs in the belly, on the one hand "clear' blood, and on the other the oil, keeps them both united (the words in man): that is the progress of the word. The blood-water(-or- clear) goes through the heart, the lungs, the liver and the spleen; the oily blood goes through the pancreas, kidneys, the intestines and the genitals." The Dogon mythology is extremely complicated and detailed, their knowledge of the Sirius system and other cosmological data are implemented into their beliefs which are an integral part of their daily life.

Novas: In a binary star system, there are two stars, usually with unequal masses. The larger star will evolve faster. It will become a Red Giant then a White Dwarf . Then we have a binary system with a normal star and a white dwarf. Later the normal star will evolve into a Red Giant. It's outer layers will swell and expand.

The gravity of the white dwarf pulls some material away from the Red Giant. The material swirls around the white dwarf in an accretion disk. Material spirals in and lands on the white dwarf. The falling material gains a lot of energy. The white dwarf (which likely is made mostly of carbon) becomes covered with a layer of extremely hot hydrogen. The white dwarf is not hot or dense enough for carbon fusion. But even on the surface, conditions can be sufficient for hydrogen fusion.

The hydrogen that has accumulated on the surface ignites in a burst of nuclear fusion. This explosive flash is called a nova. This burst can cause the stars to appear 50,000 times brighter. About 100 novas occur in our galaxy every year.

The same white dwarf may go nova many times. Although the explosive nova event may blow material into space, overall the white dwarf is gaining mass from its companion. But there is a limit to the amount of mass a white dwarf can have (the Chandrasekhar Limit, 1.4 solar masses).

Temple claimed that the Dogon possessed knowledge on Sirius B and Sirius C, companion stars to Sirius that are, however, invisible to the naked eye. How did the Dogon know about their existence? Temple referred to legends of a mythical creature Oannes, who might have been an extraterrestrial being descending on Earth from the stars, to bring wisdom to our forefathers. In 1998, Temple republished the book with the subtitle "new scientific evidence of alien contact 5,000 years ago".

The book's glory came crashing down earlier this summer, when Lynn Picknett and Clive Prince published "The Stargate Conspiracy". That book stated that Temple had been highly influenced in his thinking by his mentor, Arthur M. Young. Young was a fervent believer in "the Council of Nine", a group of channelled entities that claim they are the nine creator gods of ancient Egypt. "The Nine" are part of the UFO and New Age and many claim to be in contact with them. "The Nine" also claim to be extraterrestrial beings, from the star Sirius. In 1952, Young was one of the nine people present during the "first contact" with the Council, where contact was initiated by Andrija Puharich, the man who brought the Israeli spoonbender and presumed psychic Uri Geller to America. It was Young who gave Temple in 1965 a French article on the secret star lore of the Dogon, an article written by Griaule and Dieterlen. In 1966, Temple, at the impressionable age of 21, became Secretary of Young's Foundation for the Study of Consciousness. In 1967, Temple began work on what would eventually become "The Sirius Mystery". As Picknett and Prince have been able to show, Temple's arguments are often based on erroneous readings of encyclopaedic entries and misrepresentations of ancient Egyptian mythology. They conclude that Temple very much wanted to please his mentor. It is, however, a fact that the end result is indeed a book that would have pleased Young and his beliefs in extraterrestrial beings from Sirius very much, whether or not this was the intention of Temple.

History and Mythology

Orion had two dogs; Canis Major the Greater Dog and Canis Minor, the Lesser Dog. The Greater Dog, with the bright star Sirius, is located below Orion's feet whereas the Lesser Dog, with its bright star Procyon, stands behind Orion's shoulder. These two constellations contain two of the brightest stars visible to us - Sirius and Procyon. Both the Big Dog and Little Dog are said to have been the pets of a variety of gods and goddesses. Among the various owners named are Diana, Helen, Ulixes, Europa, Icarus, and others. Usually, however, the two dogs are regarded as the faithful hunting dogs of the giant Orion.

This is reflected in an Arabic title for the constellation, Al Kalb al Jabbar, or "the Dog of the Giant". The Greater Dog is described as alert, ready to spring into action, his eyes fixed on his master, Orion, the Hunter, but with an eye out for Lepus, the Hare, who sits crouching the Hunter's feet, others describe the dog as standing on hind feet, watching or springing after the Hare. The Lesser Dog has one bright star, Procyon, which means, "The Dog Rises before Sirius" (Procyon rises an hour before Sirius). Sirius (magnitude of -1.5), the brightest star seen in the night sky, forms the nose of Canis Major. A triangle of somewhat less bright stars forms the hindquarters of the dog.

In ancient writings, there are many allusions to the Dog and it is uncertain whether the constellation or its Lucida (principal star, Sirius) is referred to. The Greeks seem not to have seen a constellation here but were concerned only with the star Sirius, the Dog's nose, or mouth, which is the brightest star in the sky. Not until some time later did the Romans associate other nearby stars with Sirius and Procyon and picture the two as parts of dog figures.




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WHERE IS THE MISSING MATTER?




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WHERE IS THE MISSING MATTER?




WHERE IS THE MISSING MATTER?



It’s a very exciting time to be a cosmologist. There are great big fundamental questions that are unanswered yet: What is the universe made of? What bigger question could you ask? What’s even more exciting is the realization that it’s within our grasp to answer these questions. We’ve narrowed down the possibilities and we’ve got all the machinery in place to find the answer. And that answer is likely to be one that is unrivaled in the physical sciences in terms of beauty because of the prospect of being able to understand the formation of galaxies and the movements of cosmic structures—essentially the behavior of the cosmos as a whole—in terms of the properties of subatomic particles. We’ll be able to explain the universe as the result of the properties of its most basic constituents.




Over the last 15 years or so, computer simulations have become the primary tool that theoreticians have at their disposal to understand the formation of galaxies and of structure in the universe. The aim of the simulations is to take what we call initial conditions, which is an early state of the universe, and then see how that primeval, amorphous state evolves into an approximation of the universe we can compare with current observational surveys. Through these simulations we can arrive at an understanding of what the universe is made of, how it is structured, and how it came to be.


Computer-simulated universes are a very powerful tool because they allow you to produce material evidence for what various assumptions about the universe translate into, and then you can take this material evidence and compare it against reality. Because the universe is so complex, most mathematical treatments require many approximations and simplifications, so they are of limited applicability. Yet with a computer simulation you don’t need to make any of those approximations. You solve the equations in the full generality, so it's a very appealing activity for theoreticians to do.


In the classic Einsteinian view of the universe, everything is smooth at the beginning and stays smooth forever. That clearly is not what our universe is doing because today our universe is very inhomogeneous—it is broken up into islands that we call galaxies and galaxy clusters. If the universe had been entirely smooth, we wouldn’t be here to talk about it.


Instead, there must have been a small departure initially from this simplest assumption of a perfectly uniform universe. So the universe was not perfectly homogeneous either when it began or shortly after it began but, rather, it was slightly inhomogeneous. It had small regions where the density of matter was slightly higher than average and other regions where it was slightly lower than average. They were really tiny, these inhomogeneities, so tiny that for practical purposes it is hardly much of a departure from the simplest version of the theory. Yet tiny as they are to begin with, these inhomogeneities are very important because they are the seeds from which star clusters, galaxies and, eventually, human beings, will grow.




In April 1992, there was a very important discovery in cosmology that made the headline news all over the world—the discovery of ripples in the structure of the microwave background radiation. These ripples are nothing other than these little inhomogeneities we are talking about.


COBE map shows ripples in the structure of the microwave background radiation


The COBE satellite that discovered these ripples was short-sighted—it had a very blurry vision of the early universe. The ripples that COBE saw were much larger than the scales of the initial galaxies, so we haven’t yet detected directly the progenitors of the galaxies in the large-scale structure in the microwave background, but we have discovered or we’ve directly imaged very closely related entities that correspond to larger structures today.


What goes into the computer simulation is the nature of the lumps that we’ve studied using the COBE satellite. And then the simulation follows the dynamic evolution of those small inhomegeneities as the universe expands and as it cools, taking these very tiny little lumps and making them grow bigger. As the process unfolds the lumps move around fairly quickly, and, as they do, some of them bump into each other and coalesce, and the computer follows these coalescences beautifully.


Eventually one sees the mock universe grow from an almost, but not quite, homogeneous initial state to one which is really complex, irregular in structure and corresponding to the universe we see at the present day.




In the real universe, the whole evolutionary process is driven by gravity and gravity is produced by mass, so in order to create a simulated universe, we need to know what sort of mass our universe has. One of the critical discoveries of astronomers in the last 25 or 30 years is the realization that there must be more mass in the universe than is accounted for by what we can see.



That means most of the mass in the universe is made up of what we call dark matter, which simply describes matter that doesn’t shine. To perform a successful computer simulation one needs to specify: what is the dark matter? What is it made of and how much is there?


The amazing thing is that if you make different assumptions you end up with different universes. So what many of us have been working on for the last 20 years is exploring various possibilities, evolving them in the computer to the present, and picking out those that look more like the real universe than others. Each mock universe that’s made up in the computer can be compared with the real universe in a variety of ways. You could look at different properties of the real universe and you could ask, “How many lumps are there?” or “How big are the lumps?” or “How are the lumps distributed?” You then can ask corresponding questions in the real universe and compare the two.


There are various candidates for the dark matter, but today one of the most popular is a very exotic elementary particle we call a WIMP, or weakly interacting massive particle.The WIMPs are just elementary, subatomic particles—fundamental constituents of matter. Tiny little individual things, they themselves come basically in two types: the so-called hot dark matter and cold dark matter. Hot dark matter consists of quickly moving small particles such as neutrinos, a particle which may or may not have a mass and therefore may or may not contribute to the shape of the universe. Cold dark matter is made up of particles that are sluggish—they move more slowly and are therefore cold. Predicted in a certain class of theories of fundamental interactions called supersymmetric theories, they have yet to be discovered experimentally.




The reason many people believe the dark matter is a cold-dark-matter WIMP is precisely because the cold dark matter simulation that we can create in the computer looks a lot like the real universe, whereas every other possibility we’ve tried, including hot dark matter, has turned out to look nothing like the universe. When we started cold dark matter simulations over 15 years ago, our intention was to rule them out as a candidate.



We were following a methodology where you put forward a candidate with the goal of ruling it out in order to narrow down the possibilities. With cold dark matter we failed miserably in that sense. We haven’t been able to rule it out. In all the calculations that we did and the many follow-ups people have done that have extended our work, they all come back to the same thing: cold dark matter universes look a lot like the real thing.


The fact that cold dark matter looks so good in a computer simulation doesn’t prove, of course, that it is the force shaping the universe. Today it is the front runner candidate, but until we actually see a WIMP, we can’t be sure. There are other possibilities that need to be explored and those can be explored within the context of computer simulations.


The key point of these theories is they require the existence of these hypothetical elementary particles. The proof of the pudding is in the eating; you have to capture one of these particles. So the ultimate test of this cold dark matter theory is to find the cold dark matter directly. Physics is, after all, an empirical, experimentally based human activity. You can’t prove that something is correct by theory. The Greeks thought that the truth could be established by pure thought, but we now know better: the universe is not made that way. We cannot prove the reality of anything just by thinking about it.


It’s hard to prove these particles exist because they’re very weakly interactive; that’s why they are dark: they don’t interact with anything. Cold dark matter doesn’t experience electromagnetic or nuclear interactions like protons and electrons do. They don’t interact with your apparatus, so trying to detect them in the laboratory is like trying to catch water using a bucket full of holes; it just goes through it.


Still, there are experiments to detect even these very weakly interacting particles by side effects. If you have a semiconductor, occasionally one of the WIMPs could have a head-on collision with a silicon atom and cause the atom to recoil . Now these hits are very, very rare so you have to have several kilograms of semiconductor and you are trying to find one atom moving just because it gets hit by a WIMP. Until these experimental searches succeed we cannot be certain that the theories are correct. But the exciting part is that the experiments are in place and the particles are detectable. If they exist, we will know about them in a few years.








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